Companies Ordinance, 2016 – The progression of the companies law from 1984 to 2016

The Government has, in November 2016, promulgated the Companies Ordinance, 2016 replacing the Companies Ordinance, 1984. After various seminars, conferences, expert groups, discussions and debates, the Companies Ordinance, 2016 (the “2016 Ordinance”) was drafted, debated and promulgated. The new law encourages a movement towards simplifying certain procedures, enabling greater use of technology, and encouraging a paperless record keeping environment.

The constitution for companies and the backbone legislation for the economy has experienced a cardinal shift. The salient changes to the legislation are provided below and will be revised accordingly; the history of the law and the analysis and discussion on the projected effect will follow in a subsequent post.

  1. Classification of Companies as provided by Section 224 and the Third Schedule of the 2016 Ordinance.

The Third Schedule provides for Public Interest Companies and Large Sized Companies (“PILSCs”), Medium Sized Companies (“MSCs”); and Small Sized Companies (“SSCs”). Small Sized Companies, for example, shall include private companies having (1) paid up capital up to Rs. 10 million; (2) turnover not exceeding Rs. 100 million; or (3) employees not more than 250.

The classification of a company shall be based on the previous year’s audited financial statements and can be changed if it does not fall under the previous criteria for two consecutive years.

Special provisions are provided to facilitate small and medium companies.

The 2016 Ordinance also provides for relaxations for Free-Zone Companies (Section 454) and the establishment of an Investor Education and Awareness Fund (Section 245). The 2016 Ordinance further provides for companies that are “Inactive Companies” to seek such status from the registrar to avail limited procedural and accounting requirements (Section 424).

Moreover, the 2016 Ordinance provides for streamlining lengthy processes by introducing an efficient dispute resolution mechanism through the Mediation and Conciliation Panel (Section 276), passing of members’ resolution by circulation and simplified provisions for Mergers and Acquisitions.

  1. Memorandum of Association

The 2016 Ordinance requires that companies engage in such business that is the “principal line of business” (Section 26) to reduce the issues related to the doctrine of ultra vires whereby the company undertakes acts that are beyond its scope of work or powers. The principal line of business shall be mentioned in the memorandum of association or notified to the registrar.

  1. Conversion of Shares into Electronic Format.

Electronic or “demat” form is the concept of dematerialization in finance and financial law and refers to the substitution of paper-form securities by book-entry securities. This is a form of an indirect holding system which is used as an intermediary, such as a broker or a central securities depository and holds the records of the ownership of the shares in an electronic format. The Central Depository System in Pakistan, established under the Central Depositories Act, 1997 has a similar system of electronic filing, record and transfer for and of securities.

  1. Special provisions for Independent and Non-Executive Directors (Section 166).

The 2016 Ordinance provides for the inclusion of independent directors and non-executive directors on the Board including provisions for the manner of selection and maintenance of the data bank of such directors.

  1. Increased provisions for Disclosure of Directors, and Beneficial Owners and Increased Transparency by local and foreign companies.

The 2016 Ordinance provides for increased disclosure by companies to the regulatory. It further provides for the companies to maintain a Companies’ Global Register of Beneficial Ownership (Section 452) for every substantial shareholder or officer of a company incorporated under the 2016 Ordinance, having ten percent (10%) or more shares in a foreign company or body corporate.

There is increased regulatory control vis-à-vis fraud, terrorist or corrupt financing, and money laundering.

  1. Certificate of Shariah Compliance.

Section 451 enables companies to seek for a Shariah compliance certificate from the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan. No company shall be permitted to be called “Shariah compliant” unless it is conducting business according to the principles of Shariah and has been so certified by the Commission.

  1. Agriculture Promotion Companies (Section 457).

The 2016 Ordinance enables the registration of agriculture promotion companies for the development and enabling of the agriculture sector.

  1. Table of Fees, amended, to be Paid to the Registrar.

The Seventh Schedule updates the Table of Fees to be paid to the Registrar (Section 462 and 469).


Can I be stopped from undertaking competitive work after resignation from a company?

Restriction in a Contract: Professional / Employment / Trade Freedom

13 March 2014

Companies and firms in Pakistan usually contain a non-compete clause in their agreements. The wording of such clause can range from restricting another company from partaking in competitive work while engaged with the restricting party to restricting an employee from working with a competing firm after resignation.

Is such a clause valid and enforceable in Pakistan?

Yes, provided that it is reasonable.

Although Section 27 of the Contract Act, 1872 provides that any agreement that restrains a person from exercising a lawful profession, trade or business is void to that extent; the courts in Pakistan have held that a restraint of trade clause or a non-compete clause in an agreement is valid and is not hit by Section 27 provided that it is “reasonable”.

The test then falls simply on the question of whether such clause is “reasonable” which is evaluated on a balance of probabilities and evidence.

The High Court of Sindh in Exide Pakistan Limited vs. Abdul Wadood, 2008 CLD 1258 (Karachi) provided that:

reasonableness of the clause will vary from case to case and will inter alia, depend upon the following:–

the extent of duration;

the extent of the geographical territory.

The case law in Pakistan, briefly, illustrates the following principles:

(1) The restraint of trade clause should only be aimed at protecting interest of the employer and not aimed at penalizing the employee or causing him inconvenience.

(2) The clause should not be vague and generalized but should be rather specific.

(3) The clause shall only be the applicable to the particular type of business in which the employer is actually engaged in and not to any business activity in which the employer would possibly engage in the future.

(4) The restriction cannot be termed to be unreasonable as to time and scope i.e. “for eleven (11) months in XYZ Company”. By such covenant the defendant is not restrained from getting employment in an organization other than XYZ Company which is neither fair nor reasonable (see, Al-Abid Silk Mills Limited vs. Syed Mudassar Rizvi, 2003 MLD 1947 (Karachi)).

(5) A restriction may be placed as a form of good-will on the part of an ex-employee and to protect the ex-employer from having to compromise the fruits of his business because an ex-employee has opened up a competitive business in the same neighbourhood (see, generally, Shabih Haider Zaidi vs. Muhammad Zahoor Uddin, 2001 CLC 69 (Karachi)).

(6) In global contracts, incorporation of a restraint clause cannot be said to be hit by doctrine of restraint of trade, provided it is reasonable, on equal bargaining strength, is not unilateral and operates during the currency of the agreement (see, generally, Pak China Chemicals vs. Department of Plant Protection, 2006 CLD 210 (Lahore)).


Myra Khan Qureshi is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Lahore, Pakistan.

Any queries may be directed to

Setting up a Company in Pakistan

9 January 2014

Private Limited Companies (“Companies”) in Pakistan are set up under the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (to download complete act: and are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (the “SECP”) (

The process to set up a Company in Pakistan is fairly straightforward. It is prudent, however, to consult a legal professional in this matter but the following information will provide basic guidelines in respect of setting up / incorporation/ registration:

1. Name of the Company.

(1) Choose a name for the Company.

(2) The SECP does not allow names that are inappropriate, deceptive or designed to exploit or offend the religious susceptibilities or identical nor similar to the name of an existing company.

(3) There are certain words that are prohibited from being part of the name of the Company (

(4) The validity and the availability of the proposed name of the Company can be checked on, the e-service provided by the SECP.

(5) The Company is required to obtain a name availability certificate from the SECP. The application fee for this is Rs. 200 (Rupees Two Hundred Only) for online applications and Rs. 500 (Rupees Five Hundred Only) for offline applications. SECP shall then issue a certificate re availability and validity of proposed name of the Company.

(The abovementioned amounts are as presently confirmed by SECP and are subject to change. The amounts must be re-confirmed at a date prior to the submission of the application fee.)

2. Share Capital of the Company

(1) Decide the authorized capital or share capital of the Company. The capital of the Company is the total investment made in the Company.

(2) Registration fee of the Company (to be given to the SECP) is based on the total share capital. The Fee Calculator provided by the SECP e-services ( is a helpful tool in this regard.

3. Incorporation Documents

(1) Copies of Computerized National Identity Cards (“CNICs”) of each subscriber (or “Shareholder”) of the Company.

(2) Four (4) printed copies of the Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association of the Company.

The Memorandum of Association (the “Memorandum”) is the document that provides that the details of the Company and the activities that it is authorized to undertake. It governs the relationship of the Company with the outside world. The Object Clause of the Memorandum (the operative clause in respect of what the Company is authorized to do) is usually drafted to include all those tasks and activities that the Company may wish to / foresee that it shall undertake and all other tasks ancillary thereof.   

The Articles of Association (the “Articles”) provides the details of the everyday running of the Company like election of directors, audit of accounts, annual general meetings, notices etc. It specifies the regulations for a company’s operations and lays out how tasks are to be accomplished within the organization.

The Memorandum and Articles are crucial, foundation documents of the Company and should be prepared / reviewed meticulously.

(3) Form I, the declaration of the applicant for incorporation.

(4) Form 21, the notice of the situation of the registered office of the Company.

(5) Form 29, the particulars of the directors, chief executive, company secretary etc.

(The abovementioned Forms are available for download at

(6) The original paid challan evidencing the payment of fee in any of authorized branches of MCB Bank Limited.

(7)  The authorization of the Shareholders in favor of a person to correct the deficiencies, if any, pointed out by the Registrar in any documents submitted for incorporation/registration.

4. Submission to SECP

(1) The documents once submitted to SECP may take between seven (7) to fourteen (14) days for scrutiny and review.

(2) Any mistake/omission found shall be informed to the requisite person who shall be required to re-submit the documents after correcting /amending the mistake or providing the necessary information as intimated by the SECP.

(3) If the documents are in order the SECP shall issue an incorporation certificate reflecting the incorporation of the Company and the permission to commence business.

Disclaimer: The above information is not legal advice but basic guidelines to help in understanding the process of setting up a company in Pakistan. Nothing provided herein should be used as a substitute for advice of competent counsel.


Myra Khan Qureshi is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Lahore, Pakistan.

Any queries may be directed to