Protection of Women Against Violence – New bill passed by the Punjab Assembly

On 25 February 2016, the Provincial Assembly of Punjab passed the Punjab Protection of Women Against Violence Bill, 2015 (the “Protection Bill”).

Q. What is it?

The Protection Bill aims to make a “special provision for the protection of women”, “to protect women against violence including domestic violence, to establish a protection system for effective service delivery to women victims and to create an enabling environment to encourage and facilitate women freely to play their desired role in the society, and to provide for ancillary matters”.

Q. What is domestic violence?

Section 2 (h) defines “domestic violence” as:

the violence committed by the defendant with whom the aggrieved is living or has lived in a house when they are related to each other by consanguinity, marriage or adoption;

Section 2 (r) defines “violence” as:

any offence committed against a woman including abetment of an offence, domestic violence, emotional, psychological and verbal abuse, economic abuse, stalking or a cybercrime;

Q. What are the other key definitions of the Protection Bill?

The following definitions, in Section 2, are key:

(a) “aggrieved person” means a woman who has been subjected to violence by a defendant;

(e) “dependent child” means a child who is below the age of twelve years of age and includes any adopted, step or foster child;

(j) “house” includes a place where the aggrieved person lives in a domestic relationship irrespective of right to ownership or possession of the aggrieved person, defendant or joint family;

Q. What are the plans for implementation?

For implementation, Section 3 provides that the Government shall, amongst others:

(a) institute (establish) a universal toll free dial-in-number for the aggrieved persons;

(b) establish Protection Centres and shelter homes under a phased programme;

(c) appoint necessary staff at a Protection Centre for mediation and reconciliation between the parties, rescue, medical examination, medical and psychological treatment and legal help of the aggrieved persons and proper investigation of offences committed against aggrieved persons;

(d) raise awareness about the issues involving women and the requirements of protection and relief of the aggrieved persons.

Q. What steps should be taken to seek protection and what happens then?

1. The aggrieved person, or any other person authorized by the aggrieved, or a Women Protection Officer, appointed under Section 14 of the Protection Bill, may submit a complaint for obtaining a protection, residence or monetary order for the aggrieved.

2. The relevant court shall be (1) where the aggrieved resides or carries on business; (2) where the defendant resides and carries on business; (3) where the aggrieved and the defendant last resided together.

3. The court shall then start proceedings not more than seven (7) days of the date of receipt of the complaint by the court.

4. The defendant shall be notified to show cause (appear in court) within seven (7) days. If a defendant fails to respond within the specific time, the court shall, subject to another notice to the defendant, assume that the defendant has no plausible defense and proceed to pass such order as the court deems fit.

Q. How will the court protect the victim.

1. Protective Order: If the court is satisfied that any violence has been committed, or is likely to be committed, the court may pass a protection order in favour of the aggrieved person and direct the defendant to, inter alia, not communicate with the victim, stay away from the victim, stay at a particular distance from the victim, wear an ankle or wrist GPS tracker to track the movement of the defendant at all hours, surrender any weapons, refrain from entering the place of employment of the victim, refrain from causing or aiding or abetting any act of violence; and/or refrain from committing such acts as may be specified in the protection order.

2. Residence Order: In the event of domestic violence, the court may pass a residence order directing that, inter alia, the victim shall not be evicted from the house, the victim has the right to stay in the house, the defendant shall not sell or transfer the house to any person other than the victim, the victim may be relocated to a shelter home (established under Section 13 of the Protection Bill), and/or the victim be relocated to some alternative accommodation.

3. Monetary Order: The court may also pass a monetary order ordering the defendant to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses incurred and losses suffered by the defendant which may include, inter alia, loss of earning, medical expense, damages for destruction of property, and/or maintenance of the victim and her dependent children.

Q. Where does the aggrieved person go during proceedings?

Under Section 5 of the Protection Bill, the victim shall not be evicted from the house without her consent.

Q. What are some of the shortfalls of the Protection Bill?

Some shortfalls are:

  1. The offender, it appears, can only be a person who is known to the victim by consanguinity, marriage, or adoption and does not cover such relations that the victim may have to face on a day to day but do not fall within this category, such as relatives-in-law.
  2. The legislation only provides for domestic violence against women; whereas, men may also be victims of domestic violence.
  3. The stringent timelines in the Protection Bill places a heavy burden on the courts without any mechanism of assistance to the courts.
  4. The requirement to consistently monitor protection officers to ensure that such officers do not add to the distress and instead handle issues with care, empathy, and efficiency.
  5. Regular training to the toll-free number representatives to ensure that they are able to provide advice in a quick and efficient manner, respect anonymity, and are available round the clock.
  6. The legislation does not cover dowry and the culpability of giving or receiving the same. The analogous legislation in India, Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005, criminalized the offence of giving and receiving dowry.
  7. The need for mechanisms to ensure that this legislation is not misused, for example, verbal abuse is a wide term to report violence. Such mechanisms, though, should not be at the cost of restricting, reserving or downplaying genuine cases of violence against women and should not give too much discretion to the reporting officers.
  8. Custody of children should have been included in the legislation to ensure that the victim is not deprived of full right to her children.
  9. The legislation appears to have the limited scope of civil instead of (the more preferable) criminal law. Criminal sanctions (arrest and imprisonment) require a further offense by the accused respondent (such as violating a protection order issued under this law). This may, however, be a deliberate factor of the legislators to ensure quick and flexible relief for the victim.


Myra Khan is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and (ex) Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Lahore, Pakistan.

Any queries may be directed to


Whistleblower Protection in Pakistan

A whistleblower is a person who raises concern or awareness about a wrongdoing in their workplace, either state or private. 

In the recent years, with the testimonies of Edward Snowden (an American computer professional, former CIA and US Government employee who copied classified information from the United States National Security Agency (the “NSA”) in 2013 without prior authorization. This information revealed numerous global surveillance progams and brought the issue of privacy, security and surveillance to global discussion), Julian Assange (the founder of Wikileaks that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media from anonymous sources), and Bradley Manning (a US army officer who disclosed information to Wikileaks), whistleblowing has become a much discussed topic receiving equal amounts of support and opposition.

Whistleblowing, however, has been practiced for centuries. From the Ramayana, where Vibhishan, younger brother of the King of Lanka, Ravana, informs Ram about the whereabouts of Sita, the consort of Ram, to the Watergate scandal that toppled the presidency of Richard Nixon on the information provided by a secret informant known as Deep Throat (revealed in 2005 as Mark Felt). Whistleblowing has grave consequences for the accused and the accuser. The whistleblower, though seemingly working for the greater good, is oft seen as dangerous and misguided (e.g. why did he have to make the information public, why didn’t he use the correct mechanisms) and forced to live either in hiding, never revealing his identity, or in exile.

In Pakistan, there is no specific legislation on whistleblower protection on a Federal level. Within the provinces, only Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, vide the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Right to Information Act, 2013 (the “KPK 2013 Act”), provisions for the protection of whistleblowers (Section 30). Section 30 of the KPK 2013 Act provides for protection of whistleblowers as follows:

30. Whistleblowers.—(1) No one may be subject to any legal, administrative or employment related sanction, regardless of any breach of a legal or employment obligation, for releasing information on wrongdoing, or which would disclose a serious threat to health, safety or the environment, as long as they acted in good faith and in the reasonable belief that the information was substantially true and disclosed evidence of wrongdoing or a serious threat to health, safety or the environment.

(2) For purposes of sub-section (1), wrongdoing includes the commission of a criminal offence, failure to comply with a legal obligation, a miscarriage of justice, corruption or dishonesty, or serious maladministration regarding a public body.

The other provinces also have similar acts: Punjab has the Right to Information Act, 2013; Balochistan has enacted the Freedom of Information Act, 2005; and Sindh has enacted the Sindh Freedom of Information Act, 2006 (collectively referred to as the “Acts”). However, there is no provision in the Acts which is analogous to Section 30 of the KPK 2013 Act or provides for protection of whistleblowers.

The fate of whistleblowers is, therefore, left to the jurors deciding each case upon its facts. The following factors act as a deterrent against whistleblowing:

  1. Red-tapism; no outcome of the complaint made using the correct procedures, if any, available.
  2. Defences, such as national security, interest of the state, and confidentiality obligations, argued, usually successfully, by the accused.
  3. No procedure for the protection of the identity of the whistleblower.

The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973, with the insertion of Article 19A, allowed citizens the right to have access to information in all matters of public importance. The Eighteenth Amendment was an attempt to bring information “in all matters of public importance” to the public sphere. Public bodies, officials, institutions were now required to record, store and be accountable for the information used and processed by them. Unfortunately, the Eighteenth Amendment was qualified with the proviso “subject to regulation and reasonable restrictions imposed by law” that resulted in curtailing the rights of citizens. The proviso provided an opening for the holders of information to restrict access. The only remedy available to citizens seeking information under Article 19A is challenging any refusal in the courts which include the usual issues with court proceedings, i.e. years of litigation, costs, waste of time, etc.

The text of Article 19A is as follows:

19A. Right to information.−Every citizen shall have the right to have access to information in all matters of public importance subject to regulation and reasonable restrictions imposed by law.


Myra Khan is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Lahore, Pakistan.

Harassment at the Workplace – What should I do ?!


In addition to the earlier post re protection of women in Pakistan, many have queried in respect of what should be done if a woman actually experiences harassment in the workplace in Pakistan. With the harassment case at LUMS (read about it at the LUMS official website: becoming widely popular, many are concerned of the steps that are to be taken, in law, if such sexual harassment is experienced.


1. If you are or anyone you know is facing sexual harassment at your workplace, the law provides for certain rights and procedures.

2. It is the duty of your employer, by law, to have an Inquiry Committee and a Code of Conduct in place to deal with harassment internally. If such bodies/procedures are not in place, the employee is permitted to complain directly to the Ombudsman (appointee of the Government) or file a petition against the employer (for not complying with having the correct fora in place) in a District Court for which the employer, if guilty, will be liable to a fine.

3. Workplaces include universities, schools, colleges, businesses, corporations, public sector companies, private companies, multi-nationals, hospitals, clinics, factories, branches, departments and any place where an employee operates.

There are, practically, no places of work that are exempt from the ambit of the Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2010.

4. All proceedings, whether conducted internally or externally, are to be confidential.

5. Strict timelines are imposed by the law and therefore, the authorities are not allowed to delay the dispensing of justice or discourage the complainant.

6. Your organization is responsible to impose and implement penalties on the accused if found guilty. Such penalties range from warnings to fines to temporary and even permanent stoppage of work.

7. Your organization is responsible to compensate for the harm caused to you either by offering therapy, medical treatment or damages.

8. The intention of the law is to have a zero-tolerance policy with respect to harassment of women at work. This is an encouraging trend to facilitate women to continue working without the threats of harassment and abuse.

1. General

(1) Under the Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2010 (the “Protection Act”), (sexual) “harassment” is defined in Section 2(h) as:

(h) “harassment” means any unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favors or other verbal or written communication or physical conduct of a sexual nature or sexually demeaning attitudes, causing interference with work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment, or the attempt to punish the complainant for refusal to comply to such a request or is made a condition for employment;

Therefore, the Protection Act provides for a restricted meaning of the term “harassment”. It states that “harassment means” and does not state that “harassment included”. The difference between “means” and “includes” in a definition has been noted in many judgments of our superior courts to point out that where “means” is used, the interpretation cannot expand the definition to include that which is not provided after “means”. This raises the concern that the matters such as gender based discrimination, same sex sexual harassment and the many examples of sexual harassment, particularly outside the “workplace”, are not within the ambit of the Protection Act. It may be argued that the Protection Act could encompass the protection of “men” also but the larger intention is to “women” specifically “at the workplace”.

2. Steps to be Taken in the Event of Sexual Harassment

(1) Most institutions are, under the Protection Act, required to formulate a sexual harassment policy to handle the complaints at an internal forum.

(2) Institutions and organizations are required to constitute an Inquiry Committee (Section 3) which consists of three (3) members of whom at least one (1) must be a woman. One (1) member shall be from the senior management, and one (1) member shall represent the employees or be a senior employee.

(3) If such an Inquiry Committee is formulated in your organization, the victim of sexual harassment is required to issue a written complaint to the Inquiry Committee and the Inquiry Committee is required, by law, to, within three (3) days:

(a) communicate to the accused the charges and statement of allegations leveled against him;

(b) require the accused within seven (7) days from the day the charge is communicated to him to submit a written defense and on his failure to do so without reasonable cause, the Inquiry Committee shall proceed ex-parte (without him); and

(c) enquire into the charge and may examine such oral or documentary evidence in support of the charge or in defense of the accused as the Inquiry Committee may consider necessary and each party shall be entitled to cross-examine the witnesses against him.

(4) All proceedings are to be kept confidential.

(5) No hostility can be created for the complainant that may prevent her from freely pursuing the complaint.

(6) The Inquiry Committee is required, thereafter, to submit its findings and recommendations to “the Competent Authority”. The Competent Authority is appointed by the management of the organization and can be any such authoritative figure as the organization deems fit.

(7) The Inquiry Committee shall recommend to the Competent Authority whether, on the basis of its findings, one or more of the following penalties may be imposed:

(i) Minor penalties:

(a) censure;

(b) withholding, for a specific period, promotion or increment;

(c) stoppage, for a specific period, at an efficiency bar in the time-scale, otherwise than for unfitness to cross such bar; and

(d) recovery of the compensation payable to the complainant from pay or any other source of the accused;

 (ii) Major penalties:

 (a) reduction to a lower post or time-scale, or to a lower stage in a time-scale;

(b) compulsory retirement;

(c) removal from service;

(d) dismissal from service; and

(e) Fine. A part of the fine can be used as compensation for the complainant. In case of the owner, the fine shall be payable to the complainant.

The Competent Authority is required to impose the recommended penalty within one (1) weeks of the receipt of the recommendation of the Inquiry Committee.

(8) If the victim has suffered trauma, it is the responsibility of the organization to arrange for psycho-social counselling or medical treatment, or permit additional medical leave. The organization may also offer compensation to the complainant in the event of loss of salary or other damages.

(9) Any party aggrieved with the decision of the Competent Authority may appeal to the Ombudsman, appointed by the Government at a Federal and Provincial Level.

(10) The Ombudsman is either an ex-judge of a high court or qualified to be appointed as a judge of the high court. The powers vested in the Ombudsman are the same as those vested in a Civil Court under the Code of Civil Procedures, 1908.

(11) The Ombudsman shall within three (3) days of receiving the complaint issue a show cause notice to the accused giving the accused five (5) days to respond.

(12) Any party aggrieved by the decision of the Ombudsman, may, within thirty (30) days of the decision, make a representation to the President of Pakistan or the Governor, who may pass such order as he may deem fit.

3. Duty of the Employer

(1) It is the responsibility of the employer to ensure implementation of the Protection Act and incorporate a Code of Conduct for protection against harassment at the workplace as part of their management policy. The Code of Conduct is attached as a Schedule to the Protection Act.

(2) The employer must form the Inquiry Committee and appoint a Competent Authority.

(3) The management must display copies of the Code of Conduct in English and in another language understood by the majority of the employees at all conspicuous places in the organization.

(4) On the failure of the employer to comply accordingly, any employee may file a petition before the District Court which shall, upon being found guilty, make the employer liable to a fine which may extend to one hundred thousand rupees but shall not be less than twenty five thousand rupees.


Myra Khan is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Karachi, Pakistan.

Any queries may be directed to

In protection of women…

9 March 2015

In the spirit of celebrating International Women’s Day (8 March 2015), here is a short note on the efforts of the authorities to ensure “fair representation” and “protection” of women in the workforce:


1. At least 33% of the workforce should be women.

2. Female workers should be included in trade unions in proportion to their numerical strength in the organization.

3. Employer’s representation councils should include women in proportion to their numerical strength in the organization.

4. Governing body of the Employees Social Security Institution should include a woman.

5. Minimum Wages Board should include a woman.

6. National Committee on the Rights of the Child should consist of 4 women among the 10 experts employed.

7. All provisions of the law in respect of the protection of harassment of women at the workplace should be employed, implemented and extended to women.

8. Where 25 or more women are employed, the employer(s) shall reserve a suitable daycare room for children under 6 years of the women employed, maintained in accordance with such standards as may be notified.

Detailed Note: The Government of Punjab passed the Punjab Fair Representation of Women Act, 2014 (the “FRWA”) in respect of fair representation of women in the workforce, applicable to the various sectors and companies functioning in the Province.

The discussion, herein, is limited to the applicability of the FRWA to private limited companies.

The Schedule to the FRWA provides a list (the “List”) of sixty six (66) acts and ordinances that are amended by the FRWA to ensure fair representation of women in decision-making bodies and their empowerment at the workplace. The requirement of ensuring that the workforce consists of at least thirty three percent (33%) women, as stated in the Punjab Women Empowerment Package, 2012*, is provided in the following statutes.

None of the following laws are applicable to companies:

(a) The Town Improvement Act, 1922;

(b) The Punjab Government Servants Benevolent Fund Ordinance, 1960;

(c) The Punjab Health Foundation Act, 1992;

(d) The Punjab Information Technology Board Ordinance, 1999;

(e) The Punjab Medical and Health Institutions Act, 2003;

(f) The Punjab Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority Act, 2010; and

(g) The Punjab Holy Quran (Printing and Recording) Act, 2011.

The laws applicable to companies are:

(1) Punjab Industrial Relations Act, 2010

(a) The Punjab Industrial Relations Act, 2010 (the “PIRA”), included in the List, applies to all persons employed in any establishment.

PIRA defines “establishment” to include a company employing workers in Punjab:

(ix) “establishment” means any office, firm, factory, society, undertaking, company, shop, premises or enterprise in the Punjab, which employs workmen directly or through a contractor for the purpose of carrying on any business or industry and includes all its departments and branches, whether situated in the same place or in different places having a common balance sheet and except in section 25 includes a collective bargaining unit, if any, constituted in any establishment or group of establishments; (emphasis added)

“Workman” is defined as follows:

(xxxi) “worker” and “workman” mean a person not falling within the definition of employer who is employed (including employment as a supervisor or as an apprentice) in an establishment or industry for hire or reward either directly or through a contractor whether the terms of employment be express or implied… (emphasis added)

The provisions of PIRA would, thus, be applicable to a company.

(b) The amended Section 6(2) of the PIRA provides:

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), a trade union of workmen shall not be entitled to registration under the Act– …. (c) if women are employed as workers in the establishment, group of establishments or industry with which the trade union is connected, unless it has included the female workers in the executive body, not being less than the proportion of their numerical strength in the work force of the establishment, group of establishments or industry. (emphasis added)

Section 6(2) provides that a trade union of workmen shall not be entitled to registration under the PIRA, unless the trade union has included female works in the executive body (management) in proportion to their numerical strength in the work force of the establishment (Section 6(2)(c)).

(c) The amended sub-section (2) to Section 29 (Workers Management Council) provides as follows:

(2)   The employer’s representative in the council shall be from amongst the directors or their nominees or senior executives and the workers’ representatives shall be workmen employed in the same establishment and shall– (a) where there is a collective bargaining agent in the establishment, be nominated by it, or (b) where there is no collective bargaining agent in the establishment, be elected by simple majority at a secret ballot by all workmen employed in the establishment; and (c)   if women are employed as workers in the establishment, be women not less than the proportion of their numerical strength in the work force of the establishment. (emphasis added)

Section 29(2)(c) thus provides that the employer’s representative in the council shall be from amongst the directors/ their nominees/ senior executives and the workers’ representatives shall be workmen employed in the same establishment provided that if women are employed as workers then the proportion of their representation shall be in proportion to their numerical strength in the work force.

(2) The Provincial Employees’ Social Security Ordinance, 1965

The Provincial Employees’ Social Security Ordinance, 1965 is amended to the extent that sub-section (1) of Section 5 (Governing Body) includes that at least one (1) woman should be included in the three (3) persons to represent the employers (Section 5(1)(c)) and secured persons (Section 5(1)(d)) in the governing body of the Employed Social Security Institution.

(3) The Minimum Wages Ordinance, 1961

The Minimum Wages Ordinance, 1961 is amended, by virtue of sub-section (1) to Section 3 (Establishment of Minimum Wages Boards) to include that the three (3) persons to represent the employers (Section 3(1)(c)) and workers of the Province should include at least one (1) woman (Section 3(1)(d)) in the Minimum Wages Board of the Province.

(4) The Employment of Children Act, 1991

The Employment of Children Act, 1991 is amended to include “four (4) women” in the National Committee on the Rights of the Child that shall consist of the Chairman and ten (10) experts, in sub-section (2) of Section 5 (National Committee on the Rights of the Child).

(5) The Protection Against Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2010 (the “PAHWWA”)

(a) The PAHWWA provides for the protection of women from harassment at the workplace. Section 2(n) defines workplace to be a place of work where an organization or employer operates.

(b) “Organization” is defined in Section 2(l) to include a company:

(1) “organization” means a Federal or Provincial Government Ministry, Division or department, a corporation or any autonomous or semi-autonomous body, Educational Institutes, Medical facilities established or controlled by the Federal or Provincial Government or District Government or registered civil society associations or privately managed a commercial or an industrial establishment or institution, a company as defined in the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984) and includes any other registered private sector organization or institution; (emphasis added)

(6) The Punjab Shops and Establishment (Amendment) Act, 2014

The Punjab Shops and Establishment (Amendment) Act, 2014 (the “Act”) amends the West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969 (the “Ordinance”) to the effect that daycare rooms for children should be added to any establishment or company where twenty five (25) or more women are employed:

10-A. Daycare rooms for children.— (1) Where twenty five or more women are employed in an establishment, the employer shall reserve a suitable daycare room for under six years old children of the women. (2) The daycare room shall be established, managed and conformed to such standards, as may be prescribed.

*The Punjab Women Empowerment Package, 2012 is a guide prepared by the Women Development Department, Government of Punjab to intimate the proposed amendments to various laws for the empowerment of women in the workforce. The Punjab Women Empowerment Package, 2012 does not have statutory force and is not a legal document.


Myra Khan is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Lahore, Pakistan.

Any queries may be directed to

How to use

3 January 2014

New entrants in the field of law often find themselves struggling with basic research tools. For the internet raised generation, (the “Law Site”) provides an easy, efficient and comprehensive first step to researching law, precedents, judgments, commentaries, articles etc.

Usually law firms and lawyers maintain an account with the Law Site (much like an email account) by making periodic payments for the permission to use the same.

To subscribe for a new account, you have to register on the website.
The details, payment terms and terms and conditions are provided on:

If there is already an account maintained then the user may insert the “username” and “password” and tick the box next to “I accept the terms and conditions” on the homepage to login to the website.

Once logged in, the left side of the Law Site offers “Case law Search”, “Advance Search”, “Statute Search”, “Courtwise Search”, “Citation Search” and “Article Search”.

1. Case Law Search
To search the relevant case law on a matter, click the tab “Case law Search” and insert the matter that you require case law on. For example, insert “ultra vires” in the search box and click enter.

The search engine will provide all those cases/judgments that have mentioned “ultra vires” in the document. To get an idea of the judgment read the “Case Notes”, however, it is standard and good practice to read the complete judgment before providing reference to the same.

If you know the particular Section of an Act/Ordinance or Rules or Regulations (the “Statute”), you may access the Statute and click on “Cases” under the relevant Section.

Access to Statutes is provided below.

2. To search for a Statute, click the tab “Statute Search”. The Statutes (Acts, Ordinances, Rules and Regulations) are provided alphabetically. However, if you are unsure about the name, you may search the statute by inserting the year in the search bar.

An easier way is however to type out the statute name (or as much as you know of it i.e. Contract Act Pakistan) in and find out the correct/complete name of the same including the year. It is then easier to find it alphabetically on the Law Site.

Google also generally has the popular statutes however, the completeness and the authenticity of the same can not be verified. It is often safer to rely on the Law Site.

3. If you are aware of the citation of the case (i.e. PLD 2003 Karachi 1) then you may access the case notes of the judgment in “Citation Search”.

For beginners, the above three (3) provide the easiest and most effective research ability online.

Be sure to always confirm whether a judgment or statute is still valid and always provide the citation of the same.

Good luck!


Myra Khan Qureshi is a Barrister-at-Law from the Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn and Vice Chairperson Women Rights Committee of the Lahore High Court Bar Association. She is currently practicing law in Lahore, Pakistan.

Any queries may be directed to